Engaging Smart Instruction in Future Classrooms through the TPACK Framework
The role of instructors in current technology-invaded classrooms and the smart classrooms of the future continues to evolve as a result of technological developments. Educational technologies as essential parts of the education process is thus increasingly demanding a shift in focus from tools, to learners and their learning. Emerging educational technologies suggest smarter future classrooms, where learners’ have high expectations of engagement with technology. Teachers’ therefore need deeper understanding of how smart technologies integrate with pedagogies in content delivery to achieve effective learning. This describes SPELT or the ‘smart pedagogies of learning technologies’ or SPELT. In the technology-heavy classroom of the future, teachers must possess the knowledge of how the elements of content, pedagogy and technology interact to support smart instruction. The technological, pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) framework describes this interaction.This paper aims to highlight the significance of the TPACK framework for teachers’ selection and design of learning technologies. This is discussed with focus on learner-centered, technology-based pedagogical approaches and those that explore the affordances of multisensory modalities. We also illustrate classroom implementation of TPACK using brief descriptions from two projects on the future of education. The teaching robot project describes ‘education in the future classroom’ taking advantage of peer learning while the Classroom on VR project describes virtual reality technologies taking advantage of multisensory instruction. The novelty of our work lies in the practical demonstration of how the philosophical notion of TPACK can be leveraged in the design of learning technologies to support smart instruction, in line with global and emerging trends in education. In addition, our description provides guidance to instructors who are not familiar with the TPACK concept.
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